This page contains all the resources I used to create this site and will be updated as I find new and interesting information to share.  For each resource, I will give a very brief synopsis of what I specifically found interesting or thought was important on each site.

“Basic Guidelines for Busy Teachers, Families, and Others Who Shoot Their Own Video by Bill Stark, Described and Captioned Media Program Project Director.” Caption It Yourseld. Described and Captioned Media Program, 21 Apr. 2010. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. <>.

This website is a great resource on the benefits of captions, where to find different kinds of closed captioning software and how to caption videos for yourself.

“Captioned Media: Literacy Support for Diverse Learners.” Reading Rockets. National Center for Technology Innovation and Center for Implementing Technology in Education, 2010. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. <>.

This website discusses the research that has been done on closed captions and how it effects a range of learners from ESL to struggling readers. It discusses the benefits of closed captioning on these groups in some detail.

“Closed Captioning.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <>.

This site discusses what closed captioning is, how it is used, and the history of it.  It divulges general information about closed captioning.

Evmenova, Anna S. Lights! Camera! Captions! The Effects of Picture And/or Word Captioning Adaptations, Alternative Narration, and Interactive Features on Video Comprehension by Students with Intellectual Disabilities. Diss. George Mason University, 2008. Fairfax: George Mason University, 2008. Print.

I focused on the parts of this report that looked at why closed captions were so effective when watching TV and Videos. Evmenova looks at how closed captioning effects autistic children, adults receiving literacy instruction, ESL, and special needs students.

Kothari, Brij, Avinash Pandey, and Amita R. Chudgar. “Reading Out of the “Idiot Box”: Same-Language Subtitling on Television in India.” Information Technologies and International Development 2.1 (2004): 23-44. Print.

The authors of this study looked at the literacy rates in India and how using closed captioned videos improved literacy rates and comprehension. Using music videos helps the beginning reader to anticipate what is coming next and gives the instant gradification of seeing and hearing what’s on the screen.

Linebarger, Deborah L. “Learning to Read from Television: The Effects of Using Captions and Narration.” Journal of Educational Psychology 93.2 (2001): 288-98. Print.

Linebarger investigated the use of caption, sound, and the reading behavior of 76 children just finishing second grade. The study showed that beginning readers recognized more words when they viewed television that used closed captions.

Liversidge, Gordon. “Research on Closed Captioning.” JALT Publications. JALT Publications, Nov. 2001. Web. 25 Mar. 2012. <>.

This article discusses education’s view of captioning and its effects on education. It specifically looks at several research studies involving closed captioning. The article then looks at the research having to do with the speed of the captioning.

Meyer, Martha J., and Yung-bin B. Lee. Closed-Captioned Prompt Rates: Their Influence on Reading Outcomes. Unpublished Report. Print.

Meyer and Lee looked at the speed of caption prompts and their effect on retention rates in learners. They found that there was a significant improvement in learning and retention between using closed captions and using just text material in instruction. There was an added improvement when using a slower rate for closed captions than an average rate.

“The Missing Piece!” Same Language Subtitles and Closed Captions. Zane Education. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. <>.

This article briefly goes over research on how closed captioning benefits learners and how same language subtitles help young readers.

Parks, Carolyn. “ED372662 1994-07-00 Closed Captioned TV: A Resource for ESL Literacy Education. ERIC Digest.” ERIC Digest. Adjunct ERIC Clearing, 01 July 1994. Web. 2 Apr. 2012. <>.

This article discusses some of the history of closed captioning on TV and the prevalence of closed captioned media now. The article also looks at the research results of closed captioning with ESL students.

“PowerUp What Works!” PowerUp What Works. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <>.

This article looks at how to use closed captioning in the classroom, the UDL benefits, and what the research says about closed captioning. This article says many of the same things that the Reading Rocket article said about closed captioning.

Rhyne, Theresa-Marie, and Lisa Fieldor. “Examining Open and Closed Captioning Options for Multimedia & Online Instruction at North Carolina State University.” Captioning PDF. North Carolina State University, 30 Jan. 2006. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. <>.

This report was a response to the need to caption videos for learners and discusses the need for open and closed captioning. It discusses how to create closed captions and how to caption certain media types.

Stark, Bill. “Welcome to the Read Captions Across America Site!” Read Captions Across America. DMCP. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <>.

Stark uses this page to discuss how captions are a literacy tool for many students and what the benefits are for all learners. He also discusses the laws concerning Closed captioning in a language we can all understand.

Steinfeld, Aaron. “Communications Access Information Center – The Case for Realtime Captioning in Classrooms – By Aaron Steinfeld.” Communications Access Information Center. National Court Reporters Association. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <>.

Steinfeld uses this article to argue for his dissertation and to show the research that proves that closed captions improves the classroom experience for the deaf and hard of hearing and their ability to comprehend the speaker.

“Using Video Subtitles for Reading and Literacy Improvement.” Subtitles and Reading Skills. Zane Education. Web. 1 Apr. 2012. <>.

This website article starts by looking at how Finnish readers are so literate. Finland does not create their own videos so many of the programs the population looks at is subtitles. The article uses Finland to make a comparison of using captions to learn to easily recognize words.

Van Eck, Dale. “Closed Captioning: Not Just for the Hearing Impaired.” Closed Captioning: Not Just for the Hearing Impaired. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. <>.

This article gives some really good advice on how to use closed captioning effectively in the classroom. The top ten list here really gave me some great ideas.

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